Ancient parish in West ward, Westmorland. CP enlarged by absorbing Winderwath, formerly detached portion of Cliburn CP, 1935.
6,226 acres [2,520 ha] before boundary changes; 6,729 acres [2,723 ha] after addition of Winderwath (503 acres [203 ha]). Brougham Moor and Sandwath enclosed 1776; Whinfell (formerly hunting forest of barons of Westmorland), enclosed 1842.
rising from 167 in 1801 to 296 in 1881; then declining to 243 in 1931 (last census year before boundary change).
Brougham castle built by Robert de Veteripont, baron of Westmorland, in early 13th century, next to site of Roman fort of BROCAVUM. Castle descended with barony (see Appleby), Lady Anne Clifford rebuilding it 1651 and dying there 1676. Manor of Brougham held by Brougham family until 1608; manor house, Brougham Hall, bought by Lady Anne Clifford who renovated parts of it. Passed on her death to her agent, James Bird, who extended it and enlarged park c.1686, sweeping away nearby village. Brougham Hall repurchased by younger branch of Brougham family 1726, who held it until 1934.
predominantly agricultural; quarrying on Whinfell. Whinfell park or ‘forest’ well stocked with red and fallow deer in later 17th century. Extensive forestry plantation on Whinfell by mid-19th century; holiday park (Oasis Holiday Park, now Center Parcs) in plantation, opened 1997. Brougham Hall used as testing site for military equipment, with prisoner of war camp nearby, during Second World War. RAF landing ground at Hornby Hall, 1941-5.
Places of worship:
medieval parish church of St Ninian (‘Ninekirks’), an ancient foundation rebuilt by Lady Anne Clifford 1659-60; porch added 1841. St Wilfrid’s chapel, adjacent to remains of Brougham Hall; rebuilt by Lady Anne Clifford 1658; restored in 19th century.
Schools and other institutions:
reported 1818 that no school needed as 'there are no poor in this parish'. Board school built at Woodside 1876; closed c.1980