Township in Lanercost parish, Eskdale ward, Cumberland, enlarged by addition of part of Banks township in 19th century.


4,617 acres [1,868 ha]. Commons enclosed under Lanercost enclosure award 1807.


rising from 234 in 1801 to 473 in 1831; then declining to 234 by 1901 and 124 by 2001. Inflated to 637 in 1921 by presence of staff and patients at convalescent home.


part of estate of Lanercost Priory (see Burtholme).


pastoral farming; afforestation in 20th century. Gilsland Spa, noted for its curative qualities by later 17th century, became popular resort by later 18th century: hotel (The Shaws) established by 1740s; burnt down 1859; replaced by Spa Hotel, built 1859-60; bought by Co-operative Society 1901 and used as convalescent home until 1972; now Gilsland Hall Hotel. Archaeological tourism to Hadrian’s Wall (particularly Birdoswald Roman fort) since 19th century.

Places of worship:

chapel at Tryermaine in 12th century. Church of St Mary Magdalene, serving new ecclesiastical parish of Gilsland, built 1852-4.

Schools and other institutions: