Chapelry and township in Kirkandrews-upon-Esk parish, Eskdale ward, Cumberland.
8,497 acres [3,439 ha]. Nether Common enclosed 1761; Liddel Common (1,400 acres [567 ha]) enclosed 1810.
rising from 668 in 1801 to 907 by 1831; then steady decline (apart from temporary inflation to 1,216 in 1861 when Waverley railway line under construction) to 318 by 1971; rose again to 386 in 2001.
part of barony of Liddel (see Kirkandrews Moat Quarter).
predominantly livestock farming until 20th century. Lime burning and quarrying in 19th century. Industrial camp built at Kershopefoot 1931 to aid long term unemployed return to work; became forestry base for Newfoundland Overseas Forestry Unit in Second World War; then local Forestry Commission office 1955-85. Large-scale coniferous afforestation from mid-20th century.
Places of worship:
chapel at Nicholforest recorded 1663; rebuilt 1678 and again 1726; rebuilt on new site at Kingfield 1817; rebuilt completely 1866-67. Small nonconformist chapel at Draught Sike late 19th century.
Schools and other institutions:
schoolmaster licensed to teach in chapel 1663. Endowed school recorded 1829. School at Warwicksland rebuilt 1870; closed 1989. School at Nookgate in mid-19th century. Wooden hut at Scuggate (known as ‘Border Hall’) served as village hall until replaced by wooden village hall (Nicholforest Hall) at Penton 1962; rebuilt 1964.