Township in Kirklinton parish, Eskdale ward, Cumberland.
3,043 acres [1,231 ha]. Commons in Kirklinton Middle Quarter and Hethersgill, totalling 4,264 acres [1,726 ha], enclosed 1735.
rising from 389 in 1801 to peak of 536 in 1841, then declining to low of 260 in 1971, recovering to stand at 369 in 2001.
part of barony of Levington, given in early 12th century to Richard Boyvill, whose posterity took name de Levington. After death of Levington heiress, Helewise (d. 1272), wife of Eustace de Balliol, manor passed to six co-heiresses, eventually descending to Musgraves of Hayton, who sold it to Edmund Appleby in 1661; he built core of Kirklinton Hall. His son Joseph Appleby married co-heiress of Dacres of Lanercost and their descendants took surname Dacre. Kirklinton passed to Rev. William Dacre (1827-1903), who sold it to George Graham Kirklinton before 1900. Kirklinton-Saul family greatly enlarged Kirklinton Hall 1875.
predominantly agricultural. Charter for market and fair at ‘Levington’ granted 1263 but market seems not to have survived. Smithfield said to have acquired its name from informal market on Longtown-Brampton road, where carriers sold their goods.
Places of worship:
medieval parish church of St Cuthbert; rebuilt 1845. Quaker meeting house, used for funerals at burial ground at Meg’s Hill, built 1749; sold 1964.
Schools and other institutions:
several schools in parish in early 19th century, including National school by c.1830. Fir Ends School, founded by Joseph Dacre (d. 1868); rebuilt on new site at Smithfield 1968; now Fir Ends Primary School.