Township in Lanercost parish, Eskdale ward, Cumberland.


18,770 acres [7,596 ha], consisting largely of moorland and peat mosses of Spadeadam Waste and Butterburn Flow.


in range 350-400 until 1871 (peak 407 in 1851), then falling to c.220-250 in early 20th century; further decline to 152 by 1951; stood at 164 in 2001.


part of Gilsland barony and thus Naworth Castle estate (see Brampton).


livestock farming. Spadeadam wastes said 1688 to have been ‘of late much improved’. Large-scale afforestation on Spadeadam from 1950s, surrounding RAF Spadeadam, site of testing ground for Blue Streak missile, constructed from 1956. Subsequently used as Electronic Warfare Tactics Range from 1976.

Places of worship:

Wesleyan Methodist chapels at West Hall (built 1835; in use 1991; closed) and Nickies Hill (built 1838; closed 1973).

Schools and other institutions:

unendowed school at Crowsgate, near Lees Hill, recorded 1847; closed 1876.