Ancient parish in Allerdale below Derwent ward, Cumberland, divided into four townships: High Caldbeck, Low Caldbeck, Caldbeck Haltcliff (which included village of Hesket Newmarket) and Mosedale (q.v.), which became separate CP.
ancient parish covered 16,160 acres [6,540 ha], including 6,501 acres [2,631 ha] of undivided fell, common to townships of Caldbeck High, Caldbeck Low and Caldbeck Haltcliff. Caldbeck High township covered 2,116 acres [856 ha]; Caldbeck Low 1,453 acres [588 ha] and Caldbeck Haltcliff 2,333 acres [944 ha]. Common field at Nether Row (37 acres [15 ha]) and stinted pasture at Ox Park (73 acres [30 ha]) enclosed 1839.
estimated at 955 in 1688. Rose from 1,171 in 1801 to 1,608 in 1851, then fell to 613 in 1981, before picking up to 714 in 2001.
manor of Caldbeck was retained by lords of Allerdale barony, passing from Lucys to Percys, until 1546, when granted to Thomas Lord Wharton. Descended in Wharton family until early 18th century when purchased by Charles, duke of Somerset, and reunited with former Percy estates. Manor of Hesket, held by Bewley family by early 16th century, was sold by Thomas Bewley to William Lawson 1630; Sir Wilfrid Lawson built idiosyncratic Hesket Hall in later 17th century.
hill farming. Lead and copper mining since medieval period, with surges of activity in later 16th and 17th centuries (under Mines Royal) and in 19th; last barytes mine closed 1980s. Coal mines (at Lanthwaite) and slate quarrying (at Ratten Row) recorded 1688. Caldbeck village became centre of textile industry with spinning (recorded 1829) and woollen mill. Bobbin mill (c.1847) had one of largest water wheels in England. Weaving and bobbin manufacture remained major occupations in 1900. Other industries included brewing and lime burning in 19th century. Hesket became market centre, probably in 18th century, giving rise to name ‘Newmarket’; market had faded away by later 19th century. Brewery at Hesket opened 1987.
Places of worship:
medieval parish church of St Kentigern; tower added 1727; restored 1880 and 1932-3. Quaker meeting houses at Whelpo, near Caldbeck village (built 1698; closed 1849) and Gillfoot, near Hesket Newmarket (built 1728 for holding business meetings; regular worship there from late 18th century to 1913). Wesleyan Methodist chapels at Caldbeck (built 1832; rebuilt 1863; still in use) and Hesket Newmarket (built 1839; became Free Evangelical church 1993).
Schools and other institutions:
endowed school had lost its endowment by 1815 and ‘fallen down’ by 1821. Said to be eight ‘small day schools’ in parish in 1830. National school at Upton built 1851; now Fellview Primary School. Board school at Howbeck, near Hesket Newmarket, built 1874, replacing an older school nearby; closed and converted to dwelling. Parish Hall at Upton, built 1928.