Brough under Stainmore
Township in Brough parish, East ward, Westmorland, including Church Brough and Market Brough.
1,573 acres [637 ha]. Common land at Lowgill Field (25 acres [10 ha]), enclosed 1855. Shared pastures of Market Brough Intake, enclosed 1842, and Church Brough Intake (78 acres [32 ha], enclosed 1855.
rising from under 700 in 1801 to peak of 966 in 1831; 840 in 1861, then declining to 590 by 1901; steady at around 600 across earlier 20th century, falling to low point of 574 in 1971, then rising across late 20th century to stand at 680 in 2001.
castle and manor of Brough descended with barony of Appleby (q.v.). Brough castle built on site of Roman fort of VERTERIS from c.1100; much repaired by Lady Anne Clifford 1659, but allowed to decay thereafter as manor was administered from Appleby Castle. Wharton family property in Brough regarded as part of their manor of Wharton.
attempts to found new town at Chruch Brough in 12th century failed as commercial activity had migrated to Market Brough by 1200. Market charter granted 1330, granting weekly Thursday market and four-day fair in September. Fairs flourished following increase in cattle droving in early 17th century, but market had dwindled by 1670s. Brough was significant stop on coaching road from London to Glasgow, with blacksmiths, wheel wrights and innkeepers serving travellers’ needs. Transport services remained important in 20th century, with haulage firms and bus and coach company, deriving from garage established 1920.
Places of worship:
medieval parish church of St Michael (in Church Brough); extensively restored 1880. Chapel at Market Brough founded 1506, dedicated to Blessed Virgin and St Gabriel; did not survive. Primitive Methodist chapel built 1825; rebuilt 1877; restored following damage by lightning 1880; now demolished. Wesleyan Methodist chapel built 1803; enlarged 1905; remains in use. Baptist chapel built late 1840s; replaced by larger building 1850; refurbished 1883 but closed 1916; building sold to parish council c.1926.
Schools and other institutions:
grammar school recorded 1506 in association with chapel at Market Brough; re-established in reign of Edward VI. Replaced by new Board school 1875; now Brough Community Primary School. Former school building converted into Public Hall (used by Temperance Society (established 1834) in later 19th century). Former Baptist chapel converted into Memorial Hall c.1926.