How were these summaries compiled for Lancashire? [Admin]

These summaries were compiled during 2012 by Cumbria County History Trust volunteers.  They are based on a common set of key sources, listed below. Please note that the accuracy and completeness of the summaries remains to be verified by systematic and much more extensive research in original sources: this will take place in due course as parish and township histories are drafted for the Victoria County History of Cumbria.

The sources used in the compilation of the summaries were:

Ordnance Survey 6” (1:10,560) County Series maps, First and Second Editions (1840s and c.1900)

VCH Lancashire VIII

Census data from published census reports (available up to 1931 on ‘histpop’ (

Selected Trade Directories, specifically:

     *   Parson and White (1829)

     *   Mannex & Co’s Directory of Westmorland with Lonsdale and Amounderness (1851)

     *   Mackereth (1901)

     *   Kelly (1924)

Handlist of enclosure awards: W.E. Tate, A Handlist of Lancashire Enclosure Acts and Awards (Lancashire C.C., 1946).  Details of surviving common land were obtained from the Common Land in England database at

1818 returns of schools

M. Hyde and N. Pevsner, Cumbria (Buildings of England series, Yale UP, 2010)

Local sources (published directories and guides, company and community websites, local knowledge) for information on economic activity since 1939. 

A Note on Maps: The map or maps which accompany each digest are to be regarded as diagrammatic only. Whilst the features shown are in their correct places, their representation is not to scale – a road shown to scale would be a very fine line, which would probably fragment when transferred to the website. Only the main features of a township are shown, as it was in the early 20th century. Roads which do not lead to another community are omitted (usually not metalled later in the C20.) Likewise a built-up community is marked only in a general way, not specific buildings; individual properties elsewhere ( e.g. farms) are not included in the interests of simplicity.

These maps have been drawn with information from the Ordnance Survey Second Edition (1919) scale 1:10560, with occasional reference to scale 1:2500 where detail was not clear. Each map is to a different scale, marked on the map, to accommodate the final map to an A4 page size.


A note on photographs:   These come from a variety of sources.  Many of them are to be found on Geograph where they are licensed for re-use under the Creative Commons Licence.  These photographs are indicated by ‘G ©’ followed by the photographer’s name, the location of the photograph and its date.  Further information about any photograph or the licence can be found by accessing the Geograph website  and searching by photographer name or place.

Other photographs are by individuals, (not through Geograph) and are indicated by ‘P©’ etc.  The photographers generally have no objections to their re-use provided they are acknowledged. 

There may be others taken for English Heritage’s Images of England series where the photographer retains the copyright but EH have the right to determine their use.  Permission has been given for these which are indicated by ‘EH©’ etc.


'Historical buildings in this township' : This link gives a list of Listed Buildings (with some exceptions) in the township. To find out more, please click here (pdf).